While in fact, the Earth is flattened at the poles, the

Who was Giovanni Cassini

During the Scientific Revolution, moncler mens jackets which took place between the 15th and 18th centuries, numerous inventions and discoveries were made that forever changed the way humanity viewed the Universe. And while this explosion in learning owed its existence to countless individuals, a few stand out as being especially worthy of praise and remembrance.

moncler outlet sale One such individual is Gionvanni Domenico Cassini, also known by his French name Jean Dominique Cassini. An Italian astronomer, engineer, and astrologer, Cassini made many valuable contributions to modern science. However, it was his discovery of the gaps in Saturn rings and four of its largest moons for which he is most remembered, and the reason why the Cassini spacecraft bears his name. moncler outlet sale

moncler outlet store Giovanni Domenico Cassini was born on June 8th, 1625, in the small town of Perinaldo (near Nice, France) to Jacopo Cassini and Julia Crovesi. Educating by Jesuit scientists, he showed an aptitude for mathematics and astronomy from an early age. In 1648, he accepted a position at the observatory at Panzano, near Bologna, where he was employed by a rich amateur astronomer named moncler outlet sale Marquis Cornelio Malvasia. moncler outlet store

moncler outlet online During his time at the Panzano Observatory, Cassini was able to complete his education and went on to become the principal chair of astronomy at the University of Bologna by 1650. While there, he made several scientific contributions that would have a lasting mark. moncler outlet online

cheap moncler coats This included the calculation of an important meridian line, buy moncler jackets which runs along the left aisle of the San Petronio Basilica in Bologna. At 66.8 meters (219ft) in length, it is one of the largest astronomical instruments in the worl and allowed for measurements that monlcer down jackets were (at the time) uniquely precise. This meridian also helped to settle the debate about whether or not the Universe was geocentric or heliocentric. cheap moncler coats

cheap moncler jackets During his time in Italy, Cassini determined the obliquity of the Earth ecliptic aka. it axial tilt, which he calculated to be 23 and 29 at the time. He also studied the effects of refraction and the Solar parallax, worked on planetary theory, and observed the comets of 1664 and moncler outlet store 1668. cheap moncler jackets

cheap moncler In recognition of his engineering skills, Pope Clement IX employed Cassini with regard to fortifications, river management and flooding along the Po River in northern Italy. In 1663, Cassini was named superintendent of fortifications and oversaw the fortifying of Urbino. Upon his arrival, he joined the newly founded Academie Royale des Sciences (Royal Academy of Sciences), and became the first director of the Paris Observatory, which opened in 1671. He would remain the director of the observatory until his death in 1712. cheap moncler

In 1673, Cassini obtained his moncler sale outlet French citizenship and in the following year, he married Genevive de Laistre, the daughter of the lieutenant general of the Comte de Clermont. During his time in France, Cassini spent the majority of his time dedicated to astronomical studies. Using a series of very long air telescopes, he made several cheap moncler sale discoveries and collaborated with Christiaan Huygens in many projects.

In the 1670s, Cassini began using the triangulation method to create a topographic map moncler outlet online of France. It would not be completed until after his death (1789 or 1793), when it was published under the name Carte de Cassini. In addition to being the first topographical map of France, it was the first map to accurately measure longitude and latitude, cheap moncler jackets and showed that the nation was smaller than previously thought.

moncler sale In 1672, Cassini and his colleague Jean Richer made simultaneous observations of Mars (Cassini from Paris and Richer from French Guiana) and determined its distance to Earth through parallax. This enabled him to refine the dimensions of the Solar System cheap moncler outlet and determine the value of the Astronomical Unit (AU) to within 7% accuracy. He and English astronomer Robert Hooke share credit for the discovery of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter (ca. 1665). moncler sale

moncler jackets outlet In 1683, Cassini presented an explanation for light the faint glow that extends away from the Sun in the ecliptic plane of the sky which he correctly assumed to be caused by a cloud of small particles surrounding the Sun. He also viewed eight more comets before his death, which appeared in the night sky in 1672, 1677, 1698, 1699, 1702 (two), 1706 and 1707. moncler jackets outlet

In ca. 1690, Cassini was https://www.moncleronlineoutlet.com the first to observe differential rotation within Jupiter atmosphere. He created improved tables for the positions of Jupiter Galilean moons, and discovered the periodic delays between the occultations of Jupiter moons and the times calculated. This would be used cheap moncler coats by Ole Roemer, his colleague at the Paris Observatory, to calculate the velocity moncler outlet of light in 1675.

cheap moncler jackets sale In 1683, Cassini began the measurement of the arc of the meridian (longitude line) through Paris. From the results, he concluded that Earth is somewhat elongated. While in fact, the Earth is flattened at the poles, the revelation that Earth is not a moncler sale perfect sphere was groundbreaking. cheap moncler jackets sale

Cassini also observed and published his observations about the surface markings on Mars, which had been previously observed by Huygens but not published. He also determined the rotation periods of Mars and Jupiter, and his observations of the Moon led to the Cassini Laws, which provide a compact description of the motion of the Moon. These laws state that:

moncler outlet The Moon takes the same amount of time to rotate uniformly about its own axis asit takes to revolve around the Earth. As a consequence, the same face is always pointed towards Earth. the ecliptic) www.moncleronlineoutlet.com moncler outlet

moncler factory outlet The point where the lunar orbit passes from south to north on the ecliptic (aka. the ascending node of the lunar orbit) always coincides with the point where the lunar equator passes from north to south on the ecliptic (the descending node of the lunar equator). moncler factory outlet

cheap moncler outlet A collage of Saturn (bottom left) and some of its moons: Titan, Enceladus, Dione, Rhea and Helene. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute cheap moncler outlet

Thanks to his leadership, Giovanni Cassini was the first of four successive Paris Observatory directors that bore his name. This would include his son, Jaques Cassini (Cassini II, 1677 1756); his grandson Csar Franois Cassini (Cassini III, 1714 84); and his great grandson, Jean Dominique Cassini (Cassini IV, 1748 1845).

moncler jacket sale Observations of Saturn: moncler jacket sale

moncler outlet jackets During his time in France, Cassini also made his famous discoveries of many of Saturn moons Iapetus in 1671, Rhea in 167, and Tethys and Dione in 1684. Cassini named these moons Sidera Lodoicea (the stars of Louis), and correctly explained the anomalous variations in brightness to the presence of dark material on one hemisphere (now called Cassini Regio in his honor). moncler outlet jackets

moncler outlet uk In 1675, Cassini discovered that Saturn rings are separated into two parts by a gap, which is now called the Division in his honor. He also theorized that the rings were composed of countless small particles, which was proven to be correct. moncler outlet uk

Death and Legacy:

moncler sale outlet After dedicating his life to astronomy and the Paris Observatory, Cassini went blind in 1711 and then died on September 14th, 1712, in Paris. And although he resisted many new theories and ideas that were proposed during his lifetime, his discoveries and contributions place cheap moncler him among the most important astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries moncler sale outlet.

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